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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Juvenile Arthritis Scleroderma Ankylosing Spondylitis
Sjogren's Syndrome Polymyalgia Rheumatica Polymyositis Osteomyelitis
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Paget's Disease Infectious Arthritis Osteogenic Sarcoma
Reiter's Syndrome Metastatic Carcinoma of Bone Rheumatoid Arthritis .


For an excellent discussion paper on Lupus go here!

This malar (or butterfly) rash over the face of a young girl is a typical rash seen with SLE (or DLE). The rashes are made worse by sun exposure.
Click on image for link to original webpage

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease involving multiple organ systems that is defined clinically and associated with antibodies directed against cell nuclei. Its multisystem manifestations and attendant complications from use of immunosuppressive agents make the diagnosis and management of this entity challenging.

Pathophysiology: Autoantibodies, circulating immune complexes, and T lymphocytes all contribute to the expression of disease. Organ systems affected include dermatologic, renal, central nervous system (CNS), hematologic, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, the vascular endothelium, and gastrointestinal. The revised criteria for SLE must include 4 of the following:

  • Malar rash
  • Discoid rash
  • Photosensitivity
  • Oral ulcers
  • Arthritis
  • Serositis
  • Renal disorder
  • Neurologic disorder
  • Hematologic disorder
  • Immunologic disorder
  • Antinuclear antibody

Extract from eMedicine click on this link to see complete webpage.


Immunologic Abnormalities

Haematologic Findings Plasma Proteins Urinalysis Synovial Fluid Spinal Fluid *Biopsy of Kidney and Skin *This finding is of diagnostic significance.
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