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Reference Ranges - Common Pathology Tests

Reference Intervals

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The following reference intervals approximate the 95% confidence limits of values
observed in healthy adults, unless specified otherwise. Test results are dependent
on the method used and the conditions under which the analysis is performed.
Although most laboratory methods are now standardised, differences between
laboratories may occur. Individual results should ultimately be assessed using the
reference intervals quoted by the laboratory that provides the test result. If any
doubt exists, results should be discussed with the laboratory.
The Royal College of Pathologists of Australia
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Chemical Pathology

Values are for serum or plasma, unless otherwise indicated.

Analyte Specimen Range
Sodium . 135-145 mmol/L
Potassium -serum 3.8-4.9 mmol/L
. -plasma 3.1-4.2 mmol/L
Chloride . 95-110 mmol/L
Bicarbonate - (Total CO2) 24-32 mmol/L
Anion Gap . 8-16 mmol/L
Osmolality . 280-300 mmol/kgwater
. . .
pH - Arterial blood 7.36-7.44
pO2 - Arterial blood 11.0-13.5 kPa
pCO2 - Arterial blood 4.6-6.0 kPa
Glucose (venous plasma) -fasting 3.0-6.0 mmol/L
. -random 3.0-8.0 mmol/L
Creatinine . 0.05-0.12 mmol/L
Urea . 3.0-8.0 mmol/L
Urate -males 0.20-0.45 mmol/L
. -females 0.15-0.40 mmol/L
Phosphate . 0.70-1.50 mmol/L
Calcium -total 2.10-2.55 mmol/L
. -ionised 1.20-1.30 mmol/L
. . .
Albumin . 35-47 g/L
. . .
Globulin . 25-35 g/L
Total protein . 62-80 g/L
. . .
Alpha-1-antitrypsin . 2.0-4.0 g/L
. . .
Bilirubin -total 2-20 mol/L
. -direct <7 mol/L
. . .
Triglycerides . <2.0 mmol/L
Total cholesterol . <5.5 mmol/L
. (National Heart Foundation recommendation) .
HDL Cholesterol -males 0.9-2.0 mmol/L
. -females 1.0-2.2 mmol/L
. . .
Copper . 13-22 µmol/L
Magnesium -neonate 0.6-0.9 mmol/L
. -adult 0.8-1.0 mmol/L
Zinc . 12-20 µmol/L
Acid phosphatase -total 2.3-5.7 U/L
. -prostatic 0.4-1.9 U/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) -adult, non pregnant 25-100 U/L
. -growing children 70-300 U/L
. -bone isoenzyme (adult) 10-20%
. -liver isoenzyme (adult) 40-60%
. . .
Alanine transaminase (ALT) . 5-40 U/L
Aspartate transaminase (AST) . 10-45 U/L
Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GOT) -males <50 U/L
. -females <30 U/L
Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) . 110-230 U/L
Creatine kinase (CK) -males 60-300 U/L
. -females 30-180 U/L
Amylase . 70-400 U/L
. . .
Cortisol (peak diurnal) . 220-770 nmoI/L
Prolactin -male 150-500 mU/L
. -female 0-750 mU/L
Thyroxine -total (T4) 85-160 nmol/L
. -free (Ff4) 10-25 pmoI/L
Triiodothyronine -total (T3) 1.5-2.6 nmoI/L
. -free (FT3) 4.0-8.0 pmoI/L
Thyroid stimulating honnone (TSH) . 0.4-4.0 mU/L
. . .
Therapeutic intervals: . .
   -Amitriptyline 150-900 nmoI/L 60-250 µg/L
   -Nortriptyline 200-650 nmoI/L 50-170 µg/L
   -Carbamazepine 20-50 µmol/L 6-12 mg/L
   -Digoxin 0.6-2.3 nmoI/L 0.5-1.8 µg/L
   -Lithium 0.6-1.2 mmoI/L -
   -Phenobarbitone 65-170 µmol/L 15-40 mg/L
   -Phenytoin 40-80 µmol/L 10-20 mg/L
   -Primidone 22-50 µmol/L 4.8-11.0 mg/L
   -Procainamide 15-40 µmol/L 4-11 mg/L
   -Quinidine 7-15 µmol/L 2.3-4.8 mg/L
   -Salicylates 1.0-2.5 mmoI/L 0.14-0.35 g/L
   -Theophylline (adults) 55-110 µmol/L 10-20 mg/L
   -Valproate 350-700 µmol/L 50-100 mg/L
Urine . .
Urine  -Sodium . 75-300 mmol/24hours
Urine  -Potassium . 40-100 mmol/24 hours
Urine  -Chloride . 100-250 mmol/24hours
Urine  -Urea . 420-720 mmol/24 hours
Urine  -Osmolality . 50-1200 mmol/kg
Urine  -Creatinine . 8-17 mmoI/24 hours
Urine  -Calcium . 2.5-7.5 mmol/24 hours
Urine  -Magnesium . 2.5-8.0 mmol/24hours
Urine  -Phosphate . 10-40 mmol/24hours
Urine  -Urate -male 2.2-6.6 mmol/24hours
. -female 1.6-5.6 mmol/L
Urine  -Protein . <0.15 g/24 hours
. . .
Urine  -Catecholamines . .
  -Adrenaline . <80 nmol/24 hours
  -Noradrenaline . <780 nmol/24 hours
  -Dopamine . <3500 nmol/24 hours
Urine  -Cortisol . 100-300 nmol/24 hours
Urine  -4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelate (HMMA) . <35 mol/24 hours
CSF . .
-Glucose . 2.8-4.4 mmol/L
-Protein -adult 0.15-0.45 g/L
-neonate (full term) . 0.10-1.20g/L

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HAEMATOLOGY

Values are for whole blood . .
Haemoglobin (Hb) -adult male 130-180 g/L
. -adult female 115-165 g/L
Red Cell Count (RCC) -adult male 4.5-6.5 x 1012/L
. -adult female 3.8-5.8 x 1012/L
Packed Cell Volume (PCV) -adult male 0.40-0.54
. -adult female 0.37-0.47
Mean Cell Volume (MCV) . 80-100 fL
Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH) . 27-32 pg
Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) . 300-350 g/L
Leucocyte (White Cell) Count (WCC) . 4.0-11.0 x 109/L
Leucocyte Differential Count . .
-Neutrophils . 2.0-7.5 x 109/L
-Eosinophils . 0.04-0.4 x 109/L
-Basophils . <0.1 x 109/L
-Monocytes . 0.2-0.8 x 109/L
-Lymphocytes . 1.5-4.0 x 109/L
Platelet Count . 150-400 x 109/L
ESR- male <50 years 1-7 mm/hour
. >50 years 2-10 mm/hour
     -female <50 years 3-9 mm/hour
. >50 years 5-15 mm/hour
Reticulocyte Count . 10-80 x 109/L
. . (0.2-2.0%)
. . .
Values are for plasma or serum, unless otherwise indicated. . .
Iron -adult 13-32 µmol/L
Iron (Total) Binding Capacity (TIBC) . 45- 75 µmol/L
Transferrin . 2.1-3.6 g/L
Transferrin saturation . >20%
Ferritin -male 30-300 µg/L
. -female 15-200 µg/L
Vitamin BI2 . 120-680 pmol/L
. . .
Folate -red cell 360-1400 nmol/L
. -serum 7-45 nmol/L
. . .
Values are for citrated plasma . .
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) . 25-35 seconds
-Therapeutic Range for continuous infusion heparin . 1.5-2.5 x baseline
Prothrombin Time (PT) . 13-17 seconds
International Normalised Ratio (INR) . .
-Therapeutic range for oral anticoagulants . 2.0-4.5
Fibrinogen . 1.5-4.0 g/L
. . .
In vivo test . .
Bleeding time . <9 minute
(Simplate 11- experienced operator) . .

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IMMUNOLOGY

Values are for serum. . .
Rheumatoid factor (Nephelometry) . <50 kIU/L
C3 . 0.9-1.8 g/L
C4 . O.I6-0.50 g/L
C-Reactive Protein . <5.0 mg/L
. . .
Immunoglobulins . .
IgG . 6.5-16.5 g/L
IgA . 0.8-3.7 g/L
IgM . 0.6-3.5 g/L
IgD . <0.4 g/L
. Values are for whole blood. . .
Lymphocyte typing (lymphocyte subsets) . .
Surface Antigen Cell type % blood Lymphocytes Absolute numbers
. Total lymphocytes . 1.5-4.0 x 109/L
CD2 Total T cells 60-90 0.6-2.4 x 109/L
. (sheep RBC receptor) . .
CD3 Total T cells 55-90 1.6-2.4 x 109/L
CD4 (T4) T helper/inducer 30-63 0.5-1.4 x 109/L
CD8 (T8) T suppressor/cytotoxic 10-35 0.2-0.7 x 109/L
CD19 B cells 3-25 0.04-0.5 x 109/L
. T4:T8 ratio 1.1-4.0 . .

MICROBIOLOGY

CSF Cell Count . <5 mononuclears x 106/L
. . No red cells or neutrophils
. . .
Antibiotic assays (serum) . .
. Peak Trough
Gentamicin 5-10 mg/L <2 mg/L
Tobramycin 5-10 mg/L <2 mg/L
Amikacin 25-30 mg/L <10 mg/L
Vancomycin 25-40 mg/L <10 mg/L
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