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A telepathology system consists of a high resolution video camera mounted on a microscope to capture images of pathologic specimens, a telecommunication set up to transmit images to the remote site, A telepathology workstation consisting of a computer w ith graphics card and a color monitor, and software to manage images. Telepathology system has two major branches: static systems, and dynamic systems; Recently, a hybrid system has been introduced which incorporates both static and dynamic imaging.
In a static system, a pathologist selects a small number of images. These images are then captured in a digital format on an image frame grabber board (digitiing pad) and are transferred singly to the remote site. In a dynamic system a real time video transmits live images of specimen from the microscope to the monitor at the remote site.
This system provides a means for the pathologist at the remote site to control the microscope while viewing and play an active role in selecting diagnostic fields and adjusting focus magnification and illumination. A Hybrrid system combines the efficient bandwidth utilization and reliable transmission of static sytem with the real time control and imaging of the dynamic system.

Figure 1. Telepathology Network

Click on image for link to original page from http://www.pathit.com/telepath/intro_1.htm

The Telepathology Network

Telepathology is the process of transmitting digital pathology images over telephone lines or over a local/wide area network (LAN or WAN) (Figure 1). The images may either be transmitted in real time video or as still images.

Depending on data transfer rate requirements and economic considerations, images can be transmitted by means of common telephone lines (twisted pairs of copper wire), digital phone lines (ISDN, switched-56, etc.), coaxial or fibre-optic cable, microwave, satellite, and T-1 or T-3 telecommunication links.

Approximate cost (excluding telecommunications and microscope Approximate minimum bandwidth required Action required for consultation Advantages Potential problems Potential applications
Robotic telepathology US$80 000 (but includes microscope) At least 512 kb/s, more the better Place slide on stage Remote user has complete control over image selection Expensive 
No current standard 
No interoperability between difft manufacturers
High bandwidth requirements
Frozen section diagnosis 
Second opinion consultation
realtime/dynamic telepathology
Variable < US$1000 for camera with live video output Typical systems use
2 - 4 ISDN lines
(2 - 4 x 64 kg/s)
Move stage and adjust microscope as requested by pathologist Simple to set up Image quality poor if using video-conferencing codec Second opinion 
Frozen section
Simple store-and-forward telepathology <US$1000 for 3.3 megapixel camera V.90 (56 k/s) Capture images beforehand, transmit images Low cost 
Minimal hardware expenditure
Acquiring images is labour-intensive
Possibility of sampling error
Second opinion consultation
Continuing education
Interactive store-and-forward telephathology/digital slide < US$1000 for camera + labour to manually acquire images and write webpage or US$80 000 + for a robotic scanning system At least 512 kb/s Place slide on stage, choose area(s) to scan Reduces sampling error
Slightly faster than robotic telepathology as majority of images have already been acquired
High initial cost
Scanning process can take several hours
Difficulty digitising thick specimens with multiple focal planes
Continuing education
Second opinion
Digital archiving
Medical education
Extract from paper by F. Joel W-M. Leong "Pathology (2001) 33 pp. 498-503"
Practical Applications of Internet Resources for Cost-effective Telepathology Practice

Telepathology : Introduction
Pathology is the medical study of disease-related changes in cells and tissue. Telepathology is defined as the practice of pathology at a distance. The pathologist sees images of tissue on a monitor rather than viewing the tissue specimen directly.........
Kayser, Klaus; Szymas, Janusz; Weinstein, Ronald S. ...
Kayser, Klaus; Szymas, Janusz; Weinstein, Ronald S. - Telepathology, 1 CD-ROM - Rezensionen und die Moeglichkeit zum Onlinekauf dieses Buches finden Sie hier
This presentation is best viewed using a browser capable of displaying frames.
BP Healthcare
One of Malaysia's largest healthcare corporation. Information on medical laboratory, pharmacy and courier services. Includes sections on telepathology, gallery of images and links to medicine and health information. Site is searchable.
Ensayo de diagnostico telepatologico: Caso 1
PathIT: Telepathology-Technical Review
Telepathology. A Technical Overview: Has the technology arrived
TelePathology Consultants, PC: Pathology Consultatio...
A professional medical corporation with the mission of promoting the use of telepathology through the World Wide Web as a clinical, research and educational tool in human pathology.
UICC Telepathology Consultation Center (UICC-TPCC)
Go to the UICC Telepathology Consultation Center (UICC-TPCC) Website.
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis - WorldMedicus
A definition and alternate name used for this disease.
The SIG is now in the process of developing telepathology guidelines and working to gain approval for telepathology reimbursement from Medicare. The goal of the Special Interest Group is to provide leadership and support for individuals charged with...
Telepathology Program at UPMC
... Traditionally, telepathology has been implemented using custom software and high-speed
Telepathology City - Telepathology Research in Oxfor...
Telepathology City covers telepathology terminology, concepts, techniques and publications based on our work in Oxford University, United Kingdom
Telepathology. Telepathology is using telecommunication technologies to transmit data and images ...
WorldMedicus on Mycoplasma
Selected medical articles, reviews and editorials about M.pneumoniae, M.fermentans, M.hominis and M.penetrans.
International TelePathology Group, Inc.
ITPG provides Anatomic and Clinical Pathology support to rural hospitals throughout the United States and the World via Internet technology and digital imaging. Through co-operative efforts with software developers, ITPG can offer custom, medically......
UICC Telepathology Consultation Centre
... UICC Programmes Detection and Diagnosis UICC Telepathology Consultation
Telepathology Tools for the New Millennium.
Telepathology and electronic reporting solutions use the Internet to both expedite, and improve the accuracy of a patient's cancer diagnosis.
The Johns Hopkins Pancreas Cancer Web
Information about treatment, research, and a national family tumor registry. Includes an illustrated FAQ, discussion board and chat room. Of possible interest to professionals, patients and caregivers.
Fletcher Allen Health Care Telemedicine System Techn...
Components of a Telepathology System What You Need To Get Started Microscope: any high quality microscope will generally work. The scope will need a camera mount for the specific scope and camera chosen. Most pathologists will already have... This would...
TelePathology Request Form
Thank you for your interest in our TelePathology Whiteboard Program. To Download
TelePath: Anatomic Telepathology Project
Home page for the TelePath anatomic telepathology system.
Patho.org - Marc Putterman, MD
Pathological database for information related to ophthalmology, gynecology, breast lesions.
TelePathology Applications: Fairfield Imaging Limite...
Application notes: remote frozen section work One of the common uses of telepathology is in providing remote frozen section diagnosis. In most European countries there are hospital surgical units without an on-site consultant pathologist. Because of...
UICC Telepathology Consultation Center
Ihr WWW-Browser unterstützt keine Frames - daher können
Telepathology Program at UPMC
Our Mission Traditionally, telepathology has been implemented using custom software and high-speed private data networks. Internet2 and the World Wide Web offer a flexible, ubiquitous, user-friendly, and intrinsically multimedia environment ideally
Telepathology: Current Practice, Future Opportunitie...
Spring 1999 ASCP Teleconference
HISTKOM Telepathology - IPE University of Stuttgart
... Just in case... You‘re a pathologist and you would like to add diagnosis
UICC Telepathology Consultation Center (UICC-TPCC)
UICC - Telepathology Consultation Center
Virtual Image Management Services
Telemedicine via the internet & virtual private networks.
Welcome to The Telepathology Archive.
If you've never been here before you can view our instructions on how to use this program by clicking HERE. Page Created and Maintained by Telemedicine AFIP Contact the Webmaster
Apollo Software
Company develops, assembles and markets telepathology systems which allow pathologists to make diagnoses from remote locations.
TriTek Corp.
Specializes in remotely operable computer controlled microscopes.
Click here to buy Telepathology: Telecommunication, ...
Shop at Amazon.com where you will find a huge selection of books at great prices. Shop here for Telepathology: Telecommunication, Electronic Education and Publication in Pathology (Book with CD-ROM for Windows & Macintosh) and find more books by K.
4th European Congress on Telepathology
4th European Congress on Telepathology with a Special Session on Teleimaging in Medicine International Scientific Committee Scientific Secretariat Dr. Vincenzo Della Mea, Dept. of Pathology p.le S.Maria d. Misericordia 33100 Udine ITALY Phone:......
UICC Telepathology Consultation Center
UICC - Telepathology Consultation Center
PathIT PathTel Contents Welcome Introduction Powerpoint Online Presentation Systems PathTel Apollo Histokome Paxit TelePath Video Codec MPEG Hufmann H320 Case Studies MRI MultiPath UAB Tel Optimised for: webmaster@pathit.com PathIT TelePath Requires
TelePathology Applications: Fairfield Imaging Limite...
Application notes: telepathology Telepathology means sharing microscope data via a telecoms connection (tele-microscopy). The purpose is normally to obtain a diagnosis [remote diagnosis] or a consultation [remote second opinion], or it may be to
Telepathology & Quality Assurance Home Page
Telepathology and Quality Assurance spacer Quality Assurance : United Kingdom Quality Assurance : Europe Image Analysis Referral / Remote Consultation
5 'th European Congress on Telepathology
European Commitee of Telepathology 5 th European Congress on Organizer: G. Stauch Tel.: **49 4941 6539 Fax: **49 4941 66851 Sciemtific Board: C. Beltrami G. Brugal Z. Danilovic L. Goncalves G. Haroske P. Hufnagl K. Kayser K.D. Kunze E. Martin J.
Presentation # 135 - High Resolution And Low Cost St...
Presentation # 135 6th Internet World Congress for Biomedical Sciences Index Mutiple-pages version Invited Symposium: New Technologies in Pathology and Medical Imaging (8 Presentations in this Symposium) High Resolution And Low Cost Static
Telepathology Primer
Telepathology Primer Pathology Department (MLougee ofc sys) University of Michigan Telepathology Primer Telepathology Primer What is Telepathology? Why use Telepathology? Expert consults Today Expert Consult via Telepathology Expert Consult via
Telepathology: Current Practice, Future Opportunitie...
Spring 1999 ASCP Teleconference
Forum of Oncological Telepathology - Intro Page
Forum of Oncological Telepathology You are visitor on this page This pages should be viewed at least with Internet Explorer 5.0 or Netscape Navigator 4.7 Do przegldania tych stron uywaj przynajmniej Internet Explorera 5.0 lub Netscape Navigatora
MDA Telepathology Home Page
Telepathology links pertinent to MRTC and MDLA, as well as to the physicians and the general public.
Telepathology India
Website of Telepathology India
Title - MS Netmeeting Telepathology Project
The Oxford University Nuffield Department of Pathology & Bacteriology has a strong interest in telepathology, digital imaging and medical informatics
Store-and-forward Telepathology
Store-and-forward Telepathology Vincenzo Della Mea, PhD Institute of Pathology, University of Udine, Italy Published as: Della Mea V. Store-and-forward telepathology. In: European Telemedicine 1998/99. Hernandez B, Wootton R (eds.). EHTO/RSM
Digital Dynamic Telepathology -- the Virtual Microsc...
This paper, we concentrate on how the system manipulates and displays high power, high resolution histopathology datasets. The Virtual Microscope employs a client server architecture. The client software runs on an end user s PC or workstation, whil
Patho.org - Telepathology
online database of pathology and telepathology images
Telepathology at the Department of Veterans Affairs VISN 6 Information on Telepathology in VISN 6 Gallery of Cases Case of the month Dermatopathology Corner Ophthalmic Pathology Hematopathology Endocrine Pathology Cytopathology Neuropathology Corner
Telepathology - Home
Current status registered users: 229 discussion groups: 35 Site map Case Database Telemicroscopy Documentation Registration Contact & Credits Software Guest Book Personal Login new: secure login username: password: iPath - Telepathology on the
Generic telepathology system to establish interactiv...
Generic telepathology system to establish interactive cross-ocean transplant consultations between Pittsburgh and Palermo Fort Lauderdale 04 June 2001A telepathology system, which is developed by the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC),
TelePathology Request Form
Thank you for your interest in our TelePathology Whiteboard Program. To Download the progrm please fill in your First and last name as well as your email address. TelePathWb "Canvas's" may be found at our Canvas site. Also, free Windows and Mac Zip
default.asp File
UK Internet Telepathology Network The Virtual Double-headed Microscope Supported by the UK Department of Health. Welcome to the UK Internet Telepathology Network. This site exists to facilitate connections between pathologists who wish to use video
In Alliance with the University of Vermont EVALUATION OF A TELEPATHOLOGY PROGRAM: THE CONSULTANTS' PERSPECTIVE ABSTRACT Julie McGowan, PhD, Peter Callas, PhD Vermont Initiative for Rural Health Informatics and Telemedicine University of Vermont
Telepathology There is much skepticism among pathologists about the utility of telemedicine technology for them to provide accurate diagnoses. This is as much to do with the limitations of existing technology as it is to do with what pathologist
The Use of WWW for Education and Telepathology
The Use of WWW for Education and Telepathology
Telepathology: Pathology: University of Leicester
Pathology The Virtual Double-headed Microscope This is the homepage of the 'Webcam' arm of the Virtual Double-headed Microscope Project, based in Leicester, UK. . Our aim is to help diagnostic histopathologists to discuss cases with each other,
Open Source Telepathology Project Released
up a level post article search admin main Open Source Telepathology Project Released Posted by Kurt Brauchli on Wednesday June 27, @10:10AM from the pathology dept. iPath is a recently released open source telepathology project. iPath is intended to
TELEPATHOLOGY Workstation components Consultation The practice of telepathology involves transmitting digital images such as histologic or cytologic photomicrographs through telecommunication networks to remote viewing locations for diagnosis. This
INABIS '98 - Telepathology in Internet: Real Time Im...
International scientific meeting on the Web, with Keynote Addresses, Invited Symposia, Poster Sessions, and an Exhibitors' Foyer. Sessions in basic and clinical sciences, education, and public health. Hosted by McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario
Telepathology Prototype
Telepathology Prototype The Optical Microscope Collaboratory (OMC), a new on-line microscope, located at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berekeley National Laboratory, is part of the Advanced Light Source's Distributed, Collaboratory Experiment
Telepathology Overview
Back Next Home Telepathology Personal Introduction to telepathology In the late 1960's I was a participant in a 'telemedicine' experiment in which Dr. Kenneth Bird at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston created a 'television' linkage between


City - Telepathology Research in Oxford
Nuffield Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Nuffield


Applications: Fairfield Imaging Limited -
optical quality of even a modest laboratory microscope is likely to be Thus the purchaser
of a telepathology system should first pay particular

Technology Licensing Opportunity - Isis, University of Oxford

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Nuffield and other applications within
clinical medicine. Applications: Live telepathology consultation for

Untitled Document

It supports applications including, but not definition of telepathology
is deliberately Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and

Residencies in Pathology

suites, and expanded clinical laboratory facilities. Numerous research and is supporting
research in telepathology and computer aided Applications.

APIII '97 - Electronic Posters

Client-Server Applications in Pathology. Pathology Online; Telepathology; Getting
Online Management of Clinical Pathology Laboratory Functions. University

ADVANCE for Medical Laboratory Professionals | Articles of

a manifest effect on clinical lab practice and major trend in laboratory service is
electronic moving from telepathology to the number of applications for the

Dr. Gilbertson's Home Page

the Clinical Laboratory (AIMCL), Ann Web Based Clinical Reporting", First Roundtable:
"Supercomputing Applications in Medicine Becich MJ. "Telepathology at the

[PDF] Johns Hopkins Pathology Informatics

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Pathology image management Telepathology, digital archiving of

Telepathology at the University of Pittsburgh

a community telepathology network in for Supercomputing Applications' (NCSA) Mosaic anatomic
and clinical pathology, as regional reference laboratory known as

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